Peaceful Parenting Part 24

"Peaceful Parenting" explores childhood abuse's impact on cognitive development and mental health, covering brain regions, intergenerational trauma, DNA methylation, disorders, obesity, spanking, adverse experiences, divorce effects, and empathy.

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2024, Stefan Molyneux

Brief Summary
Explore the intricate impacts of childhood abuse on cognitive development and mental health in our latest episode of Peaceful Parenting. Delve into research findings on brain regions affected by abuse exposure and the intergenerational aspects of trauma. Discover the connections between childhood abuse, DNA methylation patterns, mental health disorders, and obesity. Uncover the controversy surrounding spanking and its long-term effects, as well as the influence of adverse childhood experiences on behaviors and life outcomes. Lastly, examine the effects of parental divorce on children and the importance of empathy and support in breaking the cycle of intergenerational trauma.

Chapters
0:00 Prefrontal Cortex and Child Abuse
5:41 The Epigenetic Echo of Abuse
11:53 Genetic Influence of Child Abuse
15:54 Childhood Trauma and Obesity
22:15 Psychological Impact of Childhood Trauma
25:53 Maltreatment Effects on Biological Systems
29:48 The Cycle of Spanking
34:48 Detrimental Effects of Spanking
38:52 Racial Attitudes towards Corporal Punishment
41:27 Physical Abuse and Stress Responses
43:12 Neurological Effects of Spanking on Children
54:55 Impact of Drug Abuse on Trauma Survivors
1:10:04 Link Between ACEs and Criminal Behavior
1:15:08 Psychological Impact of Parental Divorce on Children

Long Summary
Join us in our latest episode of Peaceful Parenting by Stéphane Molyneux, where we uncover the intricate impacts of abuse on children's brains, emphasizing the enduring repercussions on cognitive development and mental health. We discuss research findings demonstrating reductions in cortical thickness in specific brain regions due to abuse exposure, leading to impulsive behavior and relationship challenges. The significant decrease in hippocampal volume among abused children highlights the effects on memory and learning.

Our conversation delves into the intergenerational aspects of abuse, exploring how childhood trauma can alter DNA methylation patterns, potentially predisposing individuals to mental health disorders in adulthood. We also shed light on the link between childhood abuse and obesity, pointing to stress-induced cortisol release and emotional eating patterns as contributing factors. Understanding the holistic impact of trauma on physical health underscores the need for comprehensive support for abuse survivors.

Further, we address the controversial topic of spanking and its long-term implications on children's cognitive development and mental well-being. Real-time recordings challenge the notion of spanking as an effective discipline method, revealing its association with negative outcomes. We examine the racial attitudes towards spanking and the correlation between childhood abuse and risky behaviors in adulthood, emphasizing the psychological toll of unhealed trauma.

In another segment, we delve into adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their influence on individuals' behaviors and life outcomes. By exploring the data linking ACEs to substance abuse disorders and criminality, we highlight the urgent need for interventions and support for those affected. The prevalence of traumatic experiences among juvenile offenders underscores the impact of childhood trauma on pathways to criminal behavior, prompting a closer examination of societal approaches to addressing trauma.

Moreover, we address the effects of parental divorce on children's mental health and well-being, emphasizing the long-term repercussions on academic performance and social relationships. By fostering empathy and support for individuals impacted by childhood trauma, we aim to break the cycle of intergenerational trauma and create a more compassionate society. Our discussions underscore the critical role of nurturing and understanding in mitigating the genetic and physiological manifestations of abuse, paving the way for a future centered on healing and resilience.

Transcript
[0:00]
Prefrontal Cortex and Child Abuse
[0:00]Peaceful Parenting by Stéphane Molyneux Part 24 Abuse in the Prefrontal Cortex, Research from 2016 showed that children exposed to abuse had a reduction in the thickness of their prefrontal cortex, along with much, much more. Cortical Thickness and Child Abuse Associations Abuse exposure was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various regions, including ventromedial PFC 48% reduction, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex OFC 36% reduction, right inferior frontal gyrus IFG 51% reduction, left temporal pole 35% reduction, reduction. Bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, PHG, 33% reduction left, 44% reduction right. Bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, 38% reduction left, 43% reduction right. Right middle temporal gyrus, 41% reduction. Right superior temporal gyrus, 32% reduction. Abuse severity was inversely related to cortical thickness in these regions except the left lateral OFC.
[1:24]Cortical Thickness and Psychopathology In one study, cortical thickness in regions differing between abused and non-abused adolescents was examined for associations with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cortical thickness was not associated with internalizing symptoms in these regions. Cortical thickness in the left PHG was inversely related to externalizing symptoms with a significance of 36% reduction. Similarly, right PHD thickness had a 35% reduction. Follow-up analysis suggested that abuse was mediating the relationship between PHD thickness and externalizing psychopathology. This neural alteration can lead to impulsive behavior, difficulty in concentrating, and challenges in forming stable relationships.
[2:25]Abuse and the Hippocampus Another significant area of concern is the hippocampus, vital for memory formation and spatial orientation. Abused children often show reduced hippocampal volume, which translates into difficulties with memory retention and learning capabilities.
[2:42]Beating the Brain About Abuse Empirical and Meta-Analytic Studies of the Association Between Maltreatment and Hippocampal Volume, 2015 15. The study's scope involves investigating the connection between childhood maltreatment and decreased hippocampal volume. In study 1, maltreatment's impact was explored through the experiences reported during the adult attachment interview in female twin pairs. Findings revealed a link between reduced hippocampal volume and childhood maltreatment, with more pronounced volume reduction in individuals experiencing maltreatment at older ages compared to early childhood. In study 2, a meta-analysis of 49 studies involving 2,720 participants was conducted. This meta-analysis reaffirmed the connection between childhood maltreatment and diminished hippocampal volume. It also explored factors like maltreatment timing, severity, and exposure time. The results indicated that maltreatment's effects on hippocampal volume are more significant during middle childhood than in early childhood or adolescence.
[3:58]In Study 1, the results showed, 1. Left hippocampal volume. Maltreatment scores were associated with a reduction of 2.01% in left hippocampal volume. Right hippocampal volume. PDS scores were linked to a reduction of 2.51% in right hippocampal volume. Age at mistreatment. Each year of older age at the time of maltreatment was connected to a reduction of 0.58% in left hippocampal volume and a reduction of 0.73% in right hippocampal volume. In study 2, the results of a meta-analysis involving 49 studies, 2,720 participants revealed, 1. Hippocampal volume association. Childhood maltreatment was confirmed to be linked to a reduction in hippocampal volume. 2. Timing of maltreatment The impact of maltreatment was found to be more pronounced in middle childhood compared to early childhood or adolescence. 3. Moderating factors The study explored factors like severity of maltreatment, timing of maltreatment, and time after exposure. However, specific percentage changes were not provided in this context.
[5:24]Child abuse isn't just an emotional or psychological scar. It's a physiological one. These neural alterations underscore the profound, long-lasting repercussions of abuse.
[5:41]
The Epigenetic Echo of Abuse
[5:41]When we talk about child protection, it's not just safeguarding their immediate well-being, but also their future mental health, cognitive abilities, and overall potential. The stakes couldn't be higher.
[6:00]The effects of child abuse on genes. Peace and violence are woven into the very substrat of life, our most basic building blocks. It's a profound and almost surreal reality that our very genes, the building blocks of who we are, can be influenced by our life experiences. The science of epigenetics, which studies changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself, presents us with a new layer of understanding when it comes to child abuse. When we talk about child abuse, we're not merely addressing a transient moment of trauma. We are discussing a calamity that imprints itself on the very DNA of the victim, leaving traces that can last a lifetime, time, and even possibly across generations. A 2023 study, including 13,988 children, found that exposure to adversity was associated with differences in DNA methylation at 41 specific loci. Among these, 20 were associated with adversities occurring between age 3 and 5 years.
[7:25]Child abuse does not just harm memories, it scars genes. Epigenetic changes influenced by traumatic experiences can alter the way genes are expressed without changing the underlying DNA sequence.
[7:41]From a 2023 systemic review of 54 studies representing a sample size of 17,184 participants, participants. These studies used different approaches to study DNAM changes related to childhood maltreatment. Different genes were studied, including NR3C1, FKBP5, SLC6A4, OXTR, and others. For NR3C1, there were 18 studies, of which 11 found hypermethylation, 3 found no association and foreshowed varied results. Childhood maltreatment subtypes such as physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect were explored in the analysis. These subtypes often had varying effects on DNAM patterns within different genes.
[8:38]The age of exposure to childhood maltreatment was found to have an impact on DNAM patterns. Some studies suggested sensitive periods during which exposure to maltreatment was more strongly associated with DNAM changes. One study suggested that there might be a sensitive period between the ages of 5 to 8 years, during which experiencing childhood maltreatment was more strongly associated with DNAM changes. In this age range, exposure to maltreatment was more strongly linked to hypermethylation at a specific gene, OXT, compared to exposures outside of this window.
[9:19]Another study, done et al. 2019, found that exposure to childhood maltreatment during infancy and toddlerhood, both to three years, explained a greater variability in DNA methylation patterns compared to exposure between three and seven years. This suggests that early childhood might be a sensitive period when the effects of maltreatment on DNA methylation are more pronounced. These modifications can result in an overreactive stress response system, making these individuals more susceptible to anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders. The lasting nature of these epigenetic alterations mean that they can be passed down to the next generation, essentially creating a domino effect where the repercussions of abuse manifest in the genes and health of descendants. Studies have found that children of parents who were abused carry specific epigenetic marks that make them more vulnerable to stress and its associated illnesses.
[10:25]A 2013 study on maltreatment and distinct genomic and epigenetic profiles in post-traumatic stress disorder studied and compared three different groups. Controls, individuals without child abuse or PTSD, individuals with a history of PTSD plus childhood abuse, and a group with PTSD but without childhood abuse. The study found distinct gene expression changes, While both groups of individuals with PTSD had significant gene expression differences compared to the trauma-absent control group, the specific gene expression changes were largely distinct between the two PTSD groups. Only a small overlap, 2%, of differentially expressed genes was observed between the two PTSD groups. DNA methylation differences The study also examined DNA methylation profiles in the same individuals and found that DNA methylation changes were more pronounced in individuals with PTSD and a history of childhood maltreatment. Up to 12 times as many differentially expressed genes were associated with differential DNA methylation in the childhood maltreatment group compared to the group without childhood abuse.
[11:53]
Genetic Influence of Child Abuse
[11:53]The study identified that certain biological pathways were enriched in each PTSD group. For instance, central nervous system development and tolerance induction pathways were enriched in the PTSD group with childhood maltreatment, while apoptosis and growth rate networks were enriched in the PTSD group without childhood abuse. use. Complex relationships. The relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation was complex. While DNA methylation changes were relatively small, they were correlated with gene expression changes. This suggests that even modest DNA methylation differences could have functional implications. Implications for biomarker research. The finding suggests that exposure to childhood maltreatment can lead to distinct gene expression and DNA methylation changes in individuals with PTSD. This indicates that the type of trauma experienced, particularly childhood maltreatment, can influence the biological mechanisms underlying PTSD and related disorders. This insight has implications for biomarker research as well as understanding the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders.
[13:16]Now imagine the magnitude of this revelation. Our actions, particularly those rooted in violence and neglect, are not just leaving emotional and psychological scars, but they are rewriting the very code that dictates our biological being. This underpins the critical importance of peaceful parenting. By understanding and respecting the epigenetic implications of our actions, we can work towards a future where the genetic echoes of trauma are minimized, and where we prioritize nurturing, understanding, and love over punitive measures.
[14:01]There is evidence that abuse can have intergenerational genetic effects. In a groundbreaking 2022 study exploring the lasting impacts of neglect, researchers discovered remarkable epigenetic similarities between affected mothers and their children. Specifically, both groups exhibited shared changes in their DNA methylation patterns across nine distinct regions. These regions predominantly lie in pivotal regulatory areas of the DNA that play a role in gene expression. Astoundingly, three of these genes, namely PM2OD1, SLC17A3, and AURCK, already known to be linked with life adversities, showed significant methylation discrepancies in 13% of mothers and 21.4% of children examined. Furthermore, mothers subjected to neglect recounted more profound adverse life events underscoring a notable correlation between these events and methylation levels in certain genes. This compelling evidence underscores the profound and intergenerational epigenetic repercussions of neglect.
[15:19]The weight of responsibility that comes with understanding the epigenetic impact of child abuse cannot be overstated. But therein lies our power. We have the knowledge and the capacity to break the cycle. With every act of peaceful parenting, we are not just healing a child's mind and soul, but we are also setting the stage for a healthier, more resilient genetic legacy.
[15:54]
Childhood Trauma and Obesity
[15:55]Obesity and health, the physical consequences of emotional wounds. Childhood trauma has a perilous way of manifesting itself, not just mentally, but physically. The correlation between early abuse and long-term health complications is profound, and among one of the most alarming of these outcomes is obesity. At first glance, the connection between emotional suffering and excessive weight gain might seem tenuous, but when you delve deeper into the psyche of an abused child, the link becomes painfully apparent.
[16:34]From a 2020 systematic review of 24 studies on the link between ACEs and obesity. Key findings. ACEs correlate with childhood obesity. Girls might have a higher sensitivity to ACE-induced obesity than boys. Sexual abuse has a stronger link to childhood obesity than other ACEs. Higher obesity risk was associated with the occurrence of multiple ACEs. ACEs' impact on childhood obesity might emerge in 2-5 years. Overall Implication Greater focus needed on ACEs for preventing and treating childhood obesity.
[17:30]A comprehensive study conducted in 2014 elucidated that individuals exposed to childhood abuse were 45% more likely to struggle with obesity in adulthood than their non-abused counterparts. This isn't just a mere statistical anomaly. It's a damning testament as to how profound and far-reaching the impacts of early trauma can be.
[17:58]From Effects of Childhood Abuse on Adult Obesity A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Meta-Analysis Conducted on Childhood Abuse and Adult Obesity 23 Cohort Studies Examined Total Participants 112,708 Key Findings Adults with reported abuse had a 34% increased likelihood of obesity. Associations with adult obesity by abuse type Physical – 28% increased risk Emotional – 36% increased risk Sexual – 31% increased risk General – abuse – 45% increased risk, Severe abuse resulted in a 50% increased risk vs. Light-slash-moderate abuse at 13% increased risk.
[19:02]No significant effects found related to study design, perspective vs. Retrospective, age, gender. Conclusion Childhood abuse is strongly linked with adult obesity, suggesting a major role in its development. Potential mechanisms include emotional disturbance, stress, and metabolic changes. From a 2019 study investigating the relationship between ACEs and weight gain in adolescents, Lessons, Study Design, Source, Minnesota Student Survey, Sample Size, 105,759 students, Grades, 8th, 9th, and 11th, Measurement, Self-Reported Height and Weight to Determine Body Mass Index, Controlled 4, Sociodemographic Characteristics, Results, Positive correlation between ACEs and weight status.
[20:08]Adolescents with ACEs had a higher likelihood of overweight, 1.2 times more likely, obesity, 1.4 times more likely, severe obesity, 1.5 times more likely. No link found between ACEs and being underweight. Conclusions Strong association between ACEs and obesity in adolescents. Direction of the relationship needs further exploration. Why would abuse lead to obesity, you might ask? The reasons are multifaceted. For many victims, especially those who have suffered sexual abuse, food becomes more than just nourishment. It morphs into a shield. Some survivors unconsciously put on weight as a defense mechanism, seeking to make themselves less desirable or less noticeable in an attempt to avoid unwanted sexual attention. tension. For others, food becomes a solace, a coping mechanism to numb the overwhelming pain and anxiety that arise from their traumatic experiences.
[21:16]Overeating, especially foods rich in sugar and fat, triggers the release of endorphins, the body's natural painkillers. For a child who has endured abuse, this temporary relief, this fleeting moment of joy amidst a sea of pain often becomes a lifeline, leading him into a vicious cycle of emotional eating.
[21:42]Additionally, cortisol, a stress hormone, plays a pivotal role in this equation. Chronic exposure to stress, as is often the case with abused children, leads to a consistent elevation in cortisol levels. Elevated cortisol has been linked to increased appetite and fat storage, especially in the the abdominal region. It's a biological response that, when combined with emotional eating, sets the stage for obesity.
[22:15]
Psychological Impact of Childhood Trauma
[22:16]A 2021 twin study showed that ACEs were associated with higher instances of depressive symptoms during early adulthood, partially due to reduced cortisol levels in early adolescence. These connections remain significant regardless of potential genetic influences. Obesity, as we know, isn't just about aesthetics. it paves the way for a slew of health complications from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes to joint issues and respiratory problems. When we discuss the ramifications of child abuse, we're not just talking about psychological scars. We're talking about reduced life expectancy, compromised quality of life, and a myriad of physical health ailments. To treat and prevent obesity in abuse victims, we must address the root causes, the emotional wounds. By understanding this intricate web of cause and effect, we can better support survivors in their journey towards healing. Of course, obesity is not the only increased health risk due to ACEs. With a greater number of ACEs, there is also an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, autoimmune disease, diabetes, hypertension, disability, and liver disease.
[23:39]Child abuse and cancer. People who have experienced significant child abuse have a 49% greater chance of contracting cancer.
[23:55]And there are a number of charts which you can find in the physical or online version of the book detailing this. Twin differences in harsh parenting predict youth's antisocial behavior.
[24:14]Antisocial behavior has strong environmental triggers. Quote. From one study. Quote. Results revealed that regardless of zygocity, the twin experiencing harsher parenting exhibited more antisocial behavior. These effects were robust across multiple operationalizations and informant reports of both harsh parenting and antisocial behavior, with only a few exceptions. Results indicate that the association between harsh parenting and children's antisocial behavior is, to a large degree, environmental in origin.
[24:57]The enduring effects of maltreatment on antisocial behavior. These negative effects do not generally fade over time. Quote, A total of 14 studies, including 18 independent samples and 20,946 individuals were considered. Our results revealed that maltreated youth are nearly two times as likely to engage in antisocial behaviors in adulthood compared with their non-maltreated peers. The relation between maltreatment and antisocial behavior was stronger when less covariates or the bivariate associations between them were considered, and maltreatment, assessed in both childhood and adolescent years, was more strongly related to the antisocial outcome.
[25:53]
Maltreatment Effects on Biological Systems
[25:53]Childhood trauma, and biological disruption. What effects does childhood trauma have on our biological systems? Sadly, the effects are deep and widespread. First, some definitions. The definition of childhood trauma based on the DSM-IV and DSM-V, exposure to life-threatening events, severe injury, or sexual violence. This includes direct trauma exposure, witnessing trauma, learning about trauma inflicted on close relatives or friends, common childhood traumas, motor vehicle accidents, bullying, terrorism, exposure to war, child maltreatment, domestic and community violence. Resulting issues Distress PTSD PTSS, Key Findings Childhood trauma is a significant medical and societal issue.
[27:10]Chronic interpersonal violence in children is prevalent globally. Globally, developmental traumatology studies the impact of persistent stress on child development using a neurobiological lens. Knowledge gap, more about trauma's biological effects in adults than children, need for understanding pediatric mechanisms. Childhood trauma effects.
[27:40]Increased rates of PTSD, PTSS, depression, anxiety, antisocial behaviors. Higher risk for alcohol and substance use disorders. PTSD diagnosis involves symptom clusters related to brain structure, function, and stress symptoms. PTSD is viewed as a spectrum of reactions to stress. PTSD diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV involves trauma experience and symptom clusters over a month. Biological insights, Traumatic events activate biological stress response systems, causes changes like increased heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate, Effects amygdala, PFC, hypothalamus, hippocampus Activates various stress systems in the body, Focus areas for literature review LHPA axis LC norepinephrine slash SNS system Serotonin system Oxytocin system Immune system Genetic and epigenetic factors. Trauma impacts brain development.
[29:08]Gender plays a role in trauma experiences. Research gaps. We need more longitudinal research on children exposed to trauma.
[29:22]Limbic childhood abuse truly does rewire the brain and the body, sometimes permanently, and can even reach its bloody claws deep into the next generation. We must stop it all now.
[29:48]
The Cycle of Spanking
[29:48]The hitting comes first. Do children get spanked because they misbehave, or does the parental aggression come first? In other words, are children spanked because they are bad, or do they become bad because they are spanked? We have the answer. It's not good. Study on spanking by parents. According to a 2014 study, parents spank their children far more often than they admit, and for utterly trivial, quote, misbehaviors. Parents tend to strike their children out of anger, and almost immediately after the children displeased them. In other words, not as a last resort, and not after verbal admonishment.
[30:49]Parents, of course, claim that they use spanking to make their children… However, this study proves that spanking doesn't work. Children hit or slapped by their parents misbehaved again, typically within ten minutes. Study methodology. Real-time audio recordings used for data collection. Participants. 35 mothers, average age of 34. 82% married. 61% white. 61% had a college degree. 60% worked outside the home. Mothers recorded evenings for six days. About 62% kept the recording on for the entire evening. Spanking incidents ranged from 1 to 10 per family. Spanking was inflicted by 12 mothers, 5 fathers, and 1 grandmother. Received by 18 children aged 7 months to 6 years. Median age of children, 4 years.
[31:58]Spanking best practices. Did their parents follow these best practices for spanking? 1. Use infrequently. 2. Only for serious misbehaviors. 3. Not in anger. 4. As a last resort. 5. On the buttocks. 6. No more than two hits in a row. Spanking Statistics and Implications, Twelve mothers in the study spanked once every 6.3 hours of interaction Most spankings were for minor offenses, Previous 1999 study, parents claimed to spank two-year-olds 18 times a year, Current study, median rate is 18 times per week, or 936 times per year. From Parents Often Spank Out of Anger and For Trivial Reasons Real-Time Study Finds, 2040.
[33:07]Physical punishment as a predictor of early cognitive development. One essential finding from the scientific literature is that the physical punishment of children harms the physical and mental development of children's brains. For example, quote, This study estimates the effect of physical punishment on the cognitive development of 1,167 low-income Colombian children. Children, age equals 17.8 months old, using three analytic strategies, lagged dependent variables, a difference in differences like approach, DD, and a novel strategy combining matching with a DD like approach. Across approaches, physical punishment at ages 9 to 26 months predicted predicted reductions in children's cognitive development of 0.08 to 0.21 standard deviations at ages 27 to 46 months. These results, plus null results of falsification tests, strengthen the argument that physical punishment leads to slower cognitive growth and illustrate the utility of alternative statistical methods to reduce problems of selection bias in developmental research. From physical punishment as a predictor of early cognitive development, evidence from econometric approaches, 2020.
[34:36]Issues with spanking. The overwhelming evidence indicates that spanking is harmful to child development.
[34:48]
Detrimental Effects of Spanking
[34:48]Spanking doesn't reduce aggressive behavior, increases child aggression over time, is linked to poor parent-child relationships, mental health problems, delinquent behavior, greater risk of physical abuse. Many medical and children's advocacy groups discourage spanking. 37 countries have banned all forms of corporal punishment for children. Spanking and Dating Violence A 2018 study found that spanking increased the risk of physical dating violence. Young adults, 61% female, mean age of 20 years, originally recruited for a longitudinal study as 9th and 10th grade Texas high school students, were asked about their childhood experiences with corporal punishment and physical abuse, as well as current experiences with dating violence. Those who were spanked showed a 30% increase in the odds of perpetrating physical dating violence.
[35:53]From Professor Elizabeth Gershoff's 2016 meta-analysis on spanking and childhood outcomes. Quote, Around the world, most children, 80%, are spanked or otherwise physically punished by their parents. UNICEF 2014 Several hundred studies have been conducted on the associations between parents' use of spanking or physical punishment and children's behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physical outcomes, making spanking one of the most studied aspects of parenting.
[36:26]Meta-analyses focused specifically on spanking were conducted on a total of 111 unique effect sizes, representing 160,927 children. An effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of an observed effect or relationship. It allows researchers to understand how meaningful or impactful an effect is. The outcomes across the studies were notably consistent. Of 111 individual effect sizes, 102 pointed towards a detrimental outcome, with 78 being statistically significant. Only 9 effect sizes indicated a beneficial outcome, with just one of these being statistically significant. Hence, 99% of the 79 statistically significant effect sizes indicated that spanking was associated with a detrimental child outcome.
[37:31]In this study, spanking refers to the act of intentionally hitting a child on the buttocks or extremities with an open hand, whereas physical abuse involves intentionally causing bodily harm to a child through actions that go beyond spanking. Physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, punching, kicking, using objects to inflict pain, or any other form of physical aggression that leads to harm or injury. The authors found the outcomes linked with spanking included, in childhood, low moral internalization, aggression, antisocial behavior, externalizing behavior problems, internalizing behavior problems, mental health problems, negative parent-child relationships, impaired cognitive ability, low self-esteem, risk of physical abuse from parents, immediate defiance, child alcohol, and substance abuse. In adulthood, antisocial behavior, mental health problems, alcohol and substance abuse, positive attitudes about spanking, i.e. adult support for physical punishment.
[38:52]
Racial Attitudes towards Corporal Punishment
[38:52]In our exploration of the complex landscape of corporal punishment, racial differences in attitudes cannot be ignored. Whites, inclusive of Hispanics, are 11% less likely than African Americans to favor spanking. Intriguingly, when examining other racial groups, such as Asians and Native Americans, we find them, on average, 5 percentage points less likely than whites to endorse the act. The immediate physical injuries that result from being hit are only the tip of the iceberg. Beyond the immediate pain, the physical aftermath might heal, but the psychological scars can last a lifetime. Victims often internalize the abuse, leading to profound feelings of worthlessness, shame, and guilt. Such emotional turmoil during the formative years can severely impede a child's overall development from forming healthy relationships to excelling academically.
[39:53]We want to raise independent children who think for themselves. Spanking, however, has been shown to set children down the path of deferring to the more powerful, as well as the mindless masses. A 2022 study found that participants who were frequently or harshly spanked had a higher dependence on positive feedback from partners and authority figures, with a 95% confidence in the results. Professor Gershoff's 2017 study, Strengthening Causal Estimates for Links Between Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behavior Problems, found that children spanked by age 5 had, on average, a 6% increase in externalizing behavior problems by age 6, and were about 7% more likely to have behavior problems by age 8 compared to those who were never spanked. Children who were spanked specifically in the previous week at age 5 were about 9% more likely to have behavior problems by age 8, which is statistically significant. However, there wasn't a significant increase in behavior problems observed for age 6.
[41:06]Children's externalizing behavior problems include behaviors such as aggression and conduct disorder. order. Teachers rated children's externalizing behavior problems based on the frequency with which children argued, fought, got angry, acted impulsively, and disturbed ongoing activities.
[41:27]
Physical Abuse and Stress Responses
[41:27]Physical abuse and stress responses.
[41:32]One of the less discussed but profoundly impactful consequences of physical abuse is the alteration in a child's stress response. Repeated exposure to abuse can disrupt a child's stress regulation mechanism, leading them to either become hypersensitive to potential threats or, conversely, numb and detached. hatched. Recent neuroscientific research has delved deep into this phenomenon. A brain imaging study from 2021 shows that children with a history of physical abuse have altered brain activity in regions linked to emotion regulation and impulse control. This makes them more susceptible to emotional outbursts, aggressive behaviors, and challenges in social interactions. The study, Corporal Punishment and Elevated Neural Response to Threat in Children, investigated if children who were spanked showed different neural responses to stimuli suggesting an environmental threat, e.g. Fearful faces, compared to children who were never spanked or who were not exposed to other forms of abuse. use.
[42:42]Key findings from this study. Spanking was associated with increased activation in response to fearful faces, as opposed to neutral faces, in several areas of the prefrontal cortex, PFC. The PFC, especially in its ventromedial and dorsolateral parts, plays a crucial role in executive functions such as impulse control, decision-making, and emotional regulation.
[43:12]
Neurological Effects of Spanking on Children
[43:13]Notably, there was elevated response in the DACC, which is part of the salience network, in spanked children compared to those who were never spanked. This is similar to what's observed in children exposed to abuse and domestic violence. Located within the PFC, the DACC is believed to be involved in the detection of errors or conflicts and plays a role in the regulation of emotional responses. It's part of the salience network which identifies and focuses attention on the most relevant stimuli in the environment. Activation in the left middle frontal gyrus was also observed. Spanked children showed primarily lower activation to neutral faces. This region is engaged during emotional regulation attempts. This is part of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC. It's involved in working memory, decision-making, and emotion regulation. Its activation during tasks of cognitive reappraisal, a key emotion regulation strategy, highlights its role in controlling and modulating emotional responses.
[44:26]Spanked children might be less likely to use effortful regulation strategies in response to ambiguous neutral faces rather than their non-spanked peers. There were heightened activations in parts of the dorsomedial PFC and bilateral frontal pole in spanked children. These areas are related to social cognitive processes. This suggests the spanked children might be more attentive to understanding the mental states of others showing fear, possibly as a way to recognize potential threats.
[44:59]The regions showing increased activation in spanked children when viewing fearful faces are the same areas where reductions in gray matter volume have been seen in young adults exposed to corporal punishment. Spanking may affect children's neural response to emotional cues similarly to how more severe forms of violence do. The study found no difference between children who were spanked and those who were more severely abused, but this sample is to be taken with caution due to the small sample size of abused children. Spanking was not linked to increased reactivity in the amygdala or anterior insula, which contrasts some previous studies on violence exposure or childhood maltreatment.
[45:48]Spanking and IQ, A 2009 study showed that children who are spanked tend to have lower IQs. The research encompassed 806 children, ages 2 to 4, and 704 children, ages 5 to 9. Children spanked in the U.S. had lower IQs after 4 years compared to non-spanked children. Both groups were retested after four years. Children ages 2 to 4, not spanked, had 5-point higher IQs after four years. Children ages 5 to 9, not spanked, had 2.8-point higher IQs after four years.
[46:39]School Corporal Punishment and its Associations with Achievement and Adjustment, From the study Running Head, School Corporal Punishment, Corporal punishment in public schools is legal in 19 states in the U.S. Over 100,000 students are disciplined with corporal punishment in public schools each year. This study reports results from an anonymous online survey of emerging adults, ages 18 to 23, in the 19 states where school corporal punishment is legal. Of the more than 800 participants, 16% revealed that they experienced school corporal punishment. Propensity score matching was used to equate those who had experienced school corporal punishment and those who had not on a range of covariates. In regression models, having ever experienced school corporal punishment was linked with lower high school GPA, higher current depressive symptoms, and greater likelihood of spanking their own children in the future.
[47:46]Risky business, promiscuity, and drug abuse. In our journey towards understanding the cataclysmic effects of child abuse, we must confront some of the most self-destructive activities that victims often indulge in. High-risk behaviors such as promiscuity and drug abuse, including alcohol, are not merely choices made in a vacuum. They are often cries for help, Desperate attempts to silence the overwhelming cacophony of pain and anguish that these individuals carry with them every day.
[48:23]Too often, those bearing the invisible scars of abuse embark on a treacherous path of self-medication, seeking solace in the ephemeral comforts of promiscuity and drug use. These aren't mere bad choices. is their desperate cry through respite from deep-seated emotional wounds. It's as if the psychological tapestry of these individuals, woven with the threads of neglect and abuse, propels them towards a cyclical pattern of self-destruction. It's a cruel irony. Those who've been harmed become adept at harming themselves further. Whether it's the intoxicating allure of drugs offering a momentary escape from their haunting past or the fleeting affirmation from casual encounters masking a deeply learned self-loathing the core remains the same a tragically misguided quest for relief recognizing this not as rebellion alien or waywardness, but as the heartbreaking consequence of unhealed trauma, is the first step towards understanding, empathy, and, ultimately, intervention.
[49:49]Promiscuity The intimate realm is where most humans find comfort, connection, and affirmation. For victims of childhood abuse, however, this very realm becomes a convoluted maze. A profound need to feel wanted, to experience even a transient connection, action, can push many into a whirlwind of risky sexual behaviors.
[50:23]Our genes only want to make more genes if they know we are at risk. The impulse to do so begins all the earlier and with less consideration for an uncertain future. Quote, our argument is grounded in life history theory, LHT, an evolutionary developmental theory that predicts that individuals exposed to early adversity show a coordinated set of behavioral, physiological, and psychological adaptations that foster survival and reproductive success in harsh and unpredictable environments, collectively known as a fast life history strategy, including earlier sexual maturation, earlier sexual debut, and greater numbers of sexual partners. From early childhood adversity and women's sexual behavior, the role of sensitivity to sexual reward. From a 2012 study that explored the effects of growing up in harsh versus unpredictable environments on sexual life history strategies. Age groups studied. Early childhood, age 0 to 5. Later childhood, age 6 to 16. Findings. Primary predictor of sexual and risky behavior. Unpredictable environment from age 0 to 5.
[51:50]Results for those exposed from age 0 to 5. Faster life history strategy at age 23. Higher percentage having more sexual partners. Increased aggressive and delinquent behaviors. Greater likelihood of association with criminal activities. Effects of harsh environments or unpredictability during age 6 to 16 Mostly not significant in predicting outcomes at age 23, Overall conclusion Unpredictable environments during early childhood, rather than just harshness, have unique and significant impact on risky behavior in adulthood. The first five years of life appear as a critical period for assessing the impact of environmental unpredictability.
[52:43]A 2001 study on adverse childhood experiences and sexual risk behaviors in women. Adverse childhood experiences correlate with increased likelihood of intercourse by age 15, 60% to 160% increase in odds. Increased perception of AIDS risk, 50% to 160% increase in odds. Having 30 or more partners, 60% to 280% increase in odds. Adjusting for age and race, women with more types of adverse experiences, one experience, 20% increase in seeing themselves at AIDS risk. Four to five experiences, 80% increase in odds. Six to seven experiences, 390% increase in odds. Number of adverse experiences linked with having 30 or more partners. 1 experience, 60% increase in odds. 2 experiences, 90% increase in odds. 6 to 7 experiences, 720% increase in odds.
[54:04]Likelihood of intercourse by age 15 with adverse experiences. 1 experience, 80% increase in odds. Six to seven experiences, 600% increase in odds.
[54:21]The psychological rationales behind such behavior is multifaceted. For some, it's an attempt to reclaim control over their bodies, a response to the powerlessness they felt during their traumatic experiences. For others, it's a search for validation, a misguided attempt to equate physical intimacy with emotional connection. For girls, it might be a desperate attempt to escape a violent household by bonding with a savior boyfriend.
[54:55]
Impact of Drug Abuse on Trauma Survivors
[54:56]Drug abuse, including alcohol. Quote, Far more than a quest for pleasure, chronic substance use is the addict's attempt to escape distress. From a medical point of view, addicts are self-medicating conditions like depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, or even attention deficit-slash-hyperactivity disorder, ADHD. Addictions always originate in pain, whether felt openly or hidden in the unconscious. They are emotional anesthetics. Heroin and cocaine, both powerful physical painkillers, also ease psychological discomfort. comfort. Infant animals separated from their mothers can be soothed readily by low doses of narcotics, just as if it were actual physical pain they were enduring. Dr. Gapramatte, in the realm of hungry ghosts.
[56:00]In the war against the demons of the past, many turn to alcohol and drugs, not realizing that they're only amplifying the chaos within. These substances offer a fleeting escape, a brief hiatus from the haunting memories and the suffocating weight of trauma. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a study that included 43,093 adults, found that, adjusted odds ratios, AOR, after controlling for demographics and other variables, Early-onset drinking was about 50% more likely among individuals with 1 or 2 plus childhood adverse events. Frequent binge drinking was also more likely among those with 1 or 2 plus adverse childhood events. Individuals with 1 or 2 plus adverse childhood events were more likely to have a family history of alcohol problems.
[57:12]No individual childhood adverse events were significantly linked with alcohol dependence after full adjustments. Adjustments considered included demographics and other potential confounders like early drinking onset, family history, and binge drinking. Experiencing ACEs leads to a five times higher likelihood of starting to smoke at an early age and nearly triples the chances of heavy smoking. All types of ACEs also raise the probability of both binge drinking and excessive alcohol consumption. And as the ACE scores rise, the risk of substance abuse disorders also amplifies.
[57:57]Why this alarming correlation? The brain's reward pathways, altered by the trauma, become susceptible. Drugs and alcohol artificially stimulate these pathways providing a temporary feeling of euphoria a short-lived relief from the relentless pain but like treacherous quicksand the more one leans on these substances the deeper they get pulled into the abyss of addiction alcohol and drugs are not just coping mechanisms, there are chains that bind the victim to their traumatic past, preventing genuine healing and growth. The immediate relief they offer is nothing but a mirage, leading the individual further away from true solace and understanding.
[58:50]Data on marijuana use among school students. In 2019, 6.6% of 8th graders, 18.4% of 10th graders, and 22.5% of 12th graders reported 30-day marijuana use. Between 2018 and 2019, the occurrence of frequent marijuana use, 20-plus times in the past 30 days, surged by 85.7% among 8th graders and 41.2% among 10th graders.
[59:28]Starting to use marijuana during adolescence elevates the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder, especially when the usage is more frequent. An increasing body of research indicates that being exposed to adverse childhood experiences, ACEs, plays a role in marijuana use during adolescence. A cross-sectional study involving 126,868 students in grades 8 to 11 revealed a graded correlation between the quantity of ACEs encountered by students and marijuana use, even after accounting for demographic and contextual variables. A nationwide prospective study demonstrated that when comparing young individuals with no ACEs, the likelihood of experiencing lifetime marijuana use during adolescence rose by about 60% for each additional ACE.
[1:00:26]The research literature is unequivocal. Most hardcore substance abusers come from abusive homes. The majority of my skid row patients suffered severe neglect and maltreatment early in life. Almost all the addicted women inhabiting the downtown Eastside were sexually assaulted in childhood, as were many of the men. The autobiographical accounts and case files of Portland residents tell stories of pain upon pain. pain, rape, beatings, humiliation, rejection, abandonment, relentless character assassination. As children, they were obliged to witness the violent relationships, self-harming life patterns, or suicidal addictions of their parents, and often had to take care of them, Or they had to look after younger siblings and defend them from being abused, even if they themselves endured the daily violation of their own bodies and souls. One man grew up in a hotel room where his prostitute mother hosted a nightly procession of men as her child slept, or tried to, on his cot on the floor.
[1:01:39]From a study on marijuana use and ACEs among school students, Hispanic students, 44.9% marijuana use, middle school, 42.9% high school. Non-Hispanic white students, 29.5% marijuana use, middle school, 32% high school. Students qualifying for free or reduced lunch, 42% for both samples. Students with at least one Adverse Childhood Experience, ACE, 55.5% middle school, 64.1% high school. Students with high ACE exposure, 4 plus ACEs, 6.8% middle school, 9.9% high school. Past 30-day marijuana use, 7.9% middle school, 18.5% high school. As ACE exposure increased, scores for family communication and school connectedness decreased.
[1:02:45]Middle school marijuana users were more likely to be female, Hispanic, in 8th grade, on free-slash-reduced lunch. High school marijuana users more likely to be non-Hispanic, black, in higher grades, on free-slash-reduced lunch. Strong association between ACEs and past 30-day marijuana use in both samples. Graded relationship observed between ACEs and marijuana use. Middle school students with varying ACE exposure had increased prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use, ranging from 2.37 to 7.86 times depending on ACE count.
[1:03:30]Family communication and school connectedness have protective associations with past 30-day marijuana use. Each one-unit increase in family communication score led to a 10% lower prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use for both school levels. A one-unit increase in school connectedness led to 24% to 28% lower prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use for both school levels. No evidence that family communication or school connectedness buffered the relationship between ACEs and past 30-day marijuana use. Study aimed to understand the relationship between ACE exposure, past 30-day marijuana use, and the potential protective roles of family communication and school connectedness. A strong relationship was found between ACE exposure and past 30-day marijuana use, especially among middle school students. Family communication provided direct protection against marijuana use.
[1:04:36]In our pursuit of a better world, one free from the shackles of childhood trauma, understanding these behaviors is paramount. It's not about judgment. It's about empathy. By acknowledging the pain behind these actions, we can begin the journey of healing, support, and transformation.
[1:05:00]The Incline Towards Risky Behaviors and Criminality The traumas of childhood don't merely shape personalities, they also influence choices and decisions made in adulthood. One of the most alarming manifestations of this influence is the inclination towards risky behaviors and criminality among those who've experienced ACEs. Children exposed to abuse, neglect, or household dysfunction grow up in environments where boundaries are either non-existent or constantly violated. This blurred understanding of right and wrong, combined with suppressed anger and the need for self-expression, can push an individual into a world of high-risk behaviors. These behaviors are not merely acts of rebellion. They're desperate calls for help, recognition, or even a way to reclaim lost control. Studies have consistently shown a strong correlation between high ACE scores and increased risky behaviours. For instance, individuals with ACEs are more likely to engage in substance abuse and attempt suicide. ACEs and suicide.
[1:06:21]General findings. ACEs, like emotional, physical, sexual abuse, parental pathology or loss, substance abuse or incarceration, increase the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts throughout life in general, and clinical samples. Quantitative findings. Among women, ACEs predicted 16% variance in suicidal ideation, 50% variance in suicidal attempts. Among men, ACEs predicted 21% variance in suicidal ideation, 33% variance in suicidal attempts. Population attributable risk factors for one or more ACE were, 67% for lifetime suicide attempts, 64% for adult suicide attempts, 80% for childhood-slash-adolescent suicide attempts. Odds ratios, ORs, for new-onset suicidal ideation due to childhood neglect, psychological and physical abuse ranged from 180% to 366% more likely. For new-onset suicide attempts, ORs ranged from 260% to 443% more likely.
[1:07:49]Specific types of ACEs, and their impact. Strongest associations to suicidal behaviors were seen with childhood sexual and physical abuse. A history of any childhood abuse, especially sexual abuse, heightens vulnerability to suicidal behavior in adulthood. Meta-analysis findings. Findings Relationship between sexual abuse and suicidality had ORs of 2.43 and 2.65.
[1:08:27]ACEs resulted in increased odds of a suicide attempt, 30% to 470%, and ideation, 20% to 240%. Physical and sexual abuse had the highest odds for both. Effect over the lifespan. ACEs influence suicidality throughout life. Childhood, 280% more likely. Teen years, 150% more likely. Young adulthood, 100% more likely. Later adulted, 130% more likely. In older adults, exposure to childhood sexual abuse was associated with serious suicidal behavior. Those with a history of physical or sexual abuse were 720% more likely to attempt suicide in their lifetime, odds ratio of 8.2. Those experiencing both types of abuses were 1,060% more likely to attempt suicide in their lifetime. Odds ratio of 11.6.
[1:09:42]Additional Considerations Childhood abuse can impact core constructs of interpersonal theory of suicide, including feelings of social, alienation, and pain tolerance. More painful experiences, like violent physical or sexual abuse, have stronger effects on lifetime suicide attempts.
[1:10:04]
Link Between ACEs and Criminal Behavior
[1:10:05]ACEs and Criminality The realm of criminality, though varied, is also closely tied to adverse childhood experiences. Individuals with a history of childhood trauma are disproportionately represented in juvenile and adult correctional facilities. The connection is undeniable. Children who face neglect or abuse are more likely to be arrested as juveniles, and this probability increases with the number of ACEs they've encountered.
[1:10:37]From ACEs and Juvenile Justice, 2019, Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences, ACEs, among Juvenile Offenders, Before encountering the criminal justice system, a majority of children have already undergone traumatic experiences. Roughly 90% of young individuals within the juvenile justice system have faced at least one significant source of stress. A study in Florida found that juvenile offenders displayed higher instances of adverse childhood experiences, ACEs, compared to the general population. The research involved a survey of 64,329 juvenile offenders. Only a mere 2.8% reported no childhood adversities, a notable contrast to the 34% in the original CDC study. A substantial 97% reported experiencing at least one ACE. About 50% reported encountering four or more ACEs, a stark contrast to the 13% noted in the original CDC study.
[1:11:45]Elevated ACE scores are associated with various outcures. Characteristics of these minors. All the minors in question are below the age of 18. The offenses they commit range from minor acts like vandalism to more severe crimes such as murder. Juvenile theft stands out as the most prevalent offense. While historically predominantly male, girls now constitute around one-third of all juvenile arrests. rests. These minors ACEs are products of circumstances beyond their control, endured since birth. Many of them originate from troubled backgrounds, having witnessed violence, endured abuse, or gone through family separations. Although their actions are their own responsibility, it's crucial to consider their behavior within the framework of their traumatic experiences and the ongoing development of their brains. The current state of affairs. Annually, the United States incarcerates over 130,000 individuals under 18, incurring a cost of $6 billion. On average, each inmate costs $88,000. At present, approximately 70,000 juveniles reside in correctional facilities.
[1:13:04]According to an MIT study, juveniles subjected to incarceration are 23% more likely to find themselves in adult penitentiaries compared to those receiving alternative sentencing. Around 40% of those in juvenile detention eventually end up in adult prisons by the age of 25. The practice of incarcerating young individuals often contributes to the creation of future adult offenders. defenders. Despite its complexities, the juvenile justice system persists, underscoring the necessity for an approach that takes into account the impact of trauma.
[1:13:44]Understanding the psychology behind this inclination towards criminality is crucial. Many of these individuals have grown up in chaotic environments where violence or deceit was the norm. They've adapted behaviors essential for survival in their childhood settings. However, these very behaviors, which might have been protective mechanisms at one point, become maladaptive in the outside world. The coping strategies, once vital for their survival, now lead them further down a spiral of self-destruction. and societal conflict.
[1:14:17]Addressing this issue requires a multifaceted approach. On one hand, there's an urgent need for interventions, therapies, and support systems for affected individuals. On the other, society at large must be educated about the long-term implications of ACEs, ensuring prevention, early detection, and appropriate intervention. To truly break the cycle, it's imperative to remember that behind every statistic, every criminal, is a story, often a story of a child crying out for help. By understanding their histories, offering support, and creating preventive measures, we can hope to guide these individuals towards a path of healing, integration, and a positive contribution to society.
[1:15:08]
Psychological Impact of Parental Divorce on Children
[1:15:09]Beneath the surface, children navigating the treacherous waters of parental divorce. In every parenting choice, the child's well-being should always come first.
[1:15:26]Parental separation and divorce are ubiquitous topics. They're touted in celebrity gossip columns and sometimes even celebrated in movies as a necessary step towards personal growth. As reported in 2022, about 50% of children witness their parents' marriage end in divorce. They witness their parents break trust with one of the greatest commitments and promises they can make in their life. What's often buried underneath the guise of adult fulfillment is the profound impact such events have half on the most innocent bystanders. Some facts on divorce and separation.
[1:16:16]According to the 2016 U.S. Census data, the majority of the roughly 74 million children aged 18 and below live in households with two parents, regardless of marital status. Additionally, approximately 25% of children in the United States reside with a single parent, primarily their mother. Nearly 50% of marriages are a remarriage for at least one partner. About 75% of divorced women remarry within 10 years. However, the likelihood of remarrying is reduced for those caring for children from a previous marriage, especially for women. Research indicates that, from a statistical perspective, children with divorced parents exhibit a 25% higher likelihood of engaging in drug abuse by the age of 14, often attributed to self-medication tendencies and reduced supervision. Their academic performance tends to be less successful and their college enrollment rates are lower. partly due to the absence of a parent's financial support. They are twice as likely to get divorced. In a new parental relationship, these children face up to a 40-fold higher risk of experiencing sexual or physical abuse than those with biological parents.
[1:17:35]The disruption of stability. At its very foundation, Peaceful parenting emphasizes creating a stable, secure, and nurturing environment for children. Yet divorce disrupts this environment, shattering the foundational understanding of security and stability a child has developed. When the two most significant anchors of a child's life decide to part ways, the immediate question that arises in the young mind is, where do I stand amidst this chaos?
[1:18:09]Loss of trust. Children model their understanding of relationships and trust based on their immediate caregivers. A tumultuous divorce can erode their innate trust in relationships. If their primary role models couldn't make it work, how can they? The 2019 study, Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Mental Health, a meta-analysis, conducted a comprehensive literature search on several databases covering articles published between 1990 and March 2018. The result was a collection of 54 studies which cumulatively offered 117 effect sizes and involved 506,299 participants. It found a significant connection was identified between parental divorce and various mental health outcomes. comes. Depression, 1.29 times higher risk. Anxiety, 1.12 times higher risk. Suicide attempt, 1.35 times higher risk. Suicidal ideation, 1.48 times higher risk. Distress, 1.48 times higher risk.
[1:19:32]Parental divorce was also linked with increased substance use. Alcohol 1.43 times higher risk. Smoking 1.64 times higher risk. Drug use 1.45 times higher risk.
[1:19:50]Often, children become the rope in the tug-of-war of parental disputes. They're exposed to the emotional bitterness and anger that comes with most divorces. This exposure not only generates feelings of guilt, thinking they might be a contributing factor to the separation, but also instills a deep-rooted sense of resentment and confusion. The conflicting loyalties to each parent can cause an internal conflict that's challenging to navigate. Divorce. educational and social impacts. It's not uncommon for children of divorced parents to experience academic difficulties. The emotional upheaval can hinder concentration, leading to a decline in academic performance. Furthermore, children might also feel isolated from their peers, fearing judgment or pity, leading to potential social withdrawal. draw. A 2020 study found that adolescents with divorced parents had an average GPA score that was 0.3 points lower than those with non-divorced parents.
[1:21:00]Divorce and premature death. Parents who divorce are not acting in the best interest of their children. A study of gifted children that that ran from 1922 to 1986, found that the children of divorced parents were, quote, 44% more apt to die early, a lifespan shortened by an average of 4.5 years. In fact, parental divorce during childhood was the single strongest social predictor of early death many years into the future.
[1:21:35]U.S. children of divorce and non-marriage are three times more likely to be expelled from school or to have a child as a teenager, as are children from intact homes, are five times more apt to live in poverty, six times more likely to commit suicide, and 12 times more likely to be incarcerated, reports a heritage study by Patrick Fagan and Robert Rector. From Children Are Hurt by Marriage Failure, 2016, Mike McManus. Quote, A comprehensive review of research from several disciplines regarding the effects of divorce on children yields a growing consensus that significant numbers of children suffer for many years from psychological and social difficulties associated with continuing and slash or new stresses within the post-divorce family and experience heightened anxiety in forming enduring attachments at later developmental stages, including young adulted. From Review on the Effects of Divorce on Children, 2020, Douglas, V.I.
[1:22:41]Divorce and Low Social Well-Being, We defined a historic cohort study of 219,226 children and adolescents aged 9 to 16 years and combined demographic registry data of family structure with questionnaire data on social well-being based on the Danish National Well-Being Questionnaire completed in 2015. A total of 5% of the children had low social well-being at school. Among the 31% who lived in dissolved families, we found more children with a low level of social well-being at school, adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.36, 1.47, than those in intact families, especially among those who at the time of family dissolution were in the preschool age, 1.55, 95% CI 1.47, 1.64. for. Quote, children from dissolved families had higher odds for low social well-being at school compared with children from intact families, especially those who experienced family dissolution at the preschool age. The school may be an important setting for identifying and providing help and support in children experiencing family dissolution.
[1:24:02]An odds ratio of 1.41 suggests that children with a low level of social well-being at school were 41% more likely to be from non-intact families compared to those from intact families. For those children who were of preschool age at the time of family dissolution, they were 55% more likely to have a low level of social well-being at school compared to those from intact families. From Family Dissolution and Children's Social Well-Being at School, a Historic Cohort Study.

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